The Building of Manhattan (Dover Architecture)

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A type of wrought iron called puddled iron was used to construct the Eiffel Tower. Cast iron, on the other hand, has a higher carbon content, which allows it to liquify at high temperatures.

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The liquid iron can be "cast" or poured into prefabricated molds. When the cast iron is cooled, it hardens. The mold is removed, and the cast iron has taken the shape of the mold. Molds can be reused, so cast-iron building modules can be mass produced, unlike hammered wrought iron.

In the Victorian Era, highly elaborate cast-iron garden fountains became affordable for even a rural town's public space. In the U. Cast iron was used in both commercial buildings and private residences for many reasons. First, it was an inexpensive means to reproduce ornate facades, such as Gothic , Classical, and Italianate, which became the most popular designs imitated.

The grand architecture, symbolic of prosperity, became affordable when mass-produced. Cast iron molds could be reused, allowing for the development of architectural catalogs of module patterns that could be optioned to prospective clients — catalogs of cast-iron facades were as common as catalogs of pattern house kits. Like mass-produced automobiles, cast-iron facades would have "parts" to easily repair broken or weathered components, if the mold still existed. Second, like other products mass produced, elaborate designs could be assembled rapidly on a construction site.

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Better yet, entire buildings could be constructed in one place and shipped all over the world - prefabrication enabled portability. Lastly, the use of cast iron was a natural extension of the Industrial Revolution.

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The use of steel frames in commercial buidlings allowed a more open floor plan design, with space to accommodate larger windows suitable for commerce. The cast-iron facades were really like icing on a cake. That icing, however, was also thought to be fireproof — a new type of building construction to address the new fire regulations after devastating fires like the Great Chicago fire of The history of cast iron's use in America begins in the British Isles.

Abraham Darby is said to be the first to develop a new furnace in Britain's Severn Valley that allowed his grandson, Abraham Darby III, to build the first iron bridge in Sir William Fairbairn , a Scottish engineer, is thought to be the first to prefabricate a flour mill in iron and ship it to Turkey around Sir Joseph Paxton — , an English landscaper, designed the Crystal Palace in cast iron, wrought iron, and glass for the Great World Exhibition of Daniel D.

Badger's Illustrated Catalogue of Cast-Iron Architecture, , is available as a Dover Publication, and a public domain version can be found online at the Internet Library.

The Building of Manhattan

Badger's Architectural Iron Works company is responsible for many portable iron buildings and lower Manhattan facades, including the E. I was still in a basket, barely 6 months old, with an Indian birth certificate that declared "Caste: Polish. But it was a great place to be a child. There was a large courtyard where bike riding and ball playing were permitted. Over time, the other people in our apartment moved out, and my parents, with what in retrospect seems like amazing equanimity, re-established careers and even bought a summer home on a lake in New Jersey.

It is hard to believe that they were barely a decade from their harrowing escape. The Beresford also had its ups and downs. According to "Luxury Apartment Houses of Manhattan," the building had a hard time dealing with the effects of the Great Depression. Nonetheless, Central Park West still had those fabulous buildings of the 20's, and in , the Beresford became a co-op.

By then I was in college, so the Beresford didn't have the gauzy glow for me that the Belnord did. But for my parents, I now realize, it had enormous significance. With its ornate trimmings and moldings, the door and elevator men, the view of the park, the Beresford represented the lifestyle they had expected for themselves before the war.

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It had taken them 20 years to do it, but when Joseph and Marta moved into the Beresford, they had completed their journey back to where they felt they belonged. I don't remember them ever speaking about this, yet I know how important it was for them to reclaim graciousness in their lives to match the courage and energy they had expended in rescuing themselves and their sons. MY favorite Beresford moment came in the mid's when I was preparing to move to New York for graduate school at Columbia.

My mother was very eager for me to live at home. But after years of living in dorms and student housing, I was skeptical. My mother disappeared and returned soaking wet moments after the girl had left. She replied, "I didn't want you to think I was interfering with your privacy. But for another three decades, I was a regular visitor to the Beresford.

We celebrated my mother's 80th birthday and my father's 90th in the spacious living room, dining room and entry hall. Both of them slept their last nights there before they died. In so many ways, the Beresford and Apartment 8B was the finish line for them, the terminus of their remarkable life journeys. Today, the Beresford is home to moguls and superstars. As an address, it is more splendid than ever, beautifully maintained and worth every penny, I suspect, of the millions it costs to buy into it.